Assessment 1 | Why i chose

I wanted to include some personal elements in my manifesto, to make it personal to me. I decided to achieve this by adding a few little elements to the manifesto itself.

Code:
I wanted to incorporate a snippet of C++ code into my manifesto to show my appreciation for not only gaming, but my interest in the development and design of them. This snippet of code is actually from one of the very first games many moons ago, although obviously changed slightly to allow me to use it properly.

Gaming quote:
I also wanted to include a homage to one of my favorite gaming series’ Team Fortress. Developed by valve, it started off many moons ago as a simple mod for Quake, and blossomed into a full series. I have been playing since the mid 90’s and it is still a large part of my background. I have met many friends through gaming and felt i should make some sort of nod towards it.

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Assessment 1 | Bibliography

Bibliography

Adbusters. (2000). First Things First 2000. Available: http://maxb.home.xs4all.nl/ftf2000.htm. Last accessed 21st October 2011.

Breton, A. (2011). 100 Artists’ Manifestos From The Futurists To The Stuckists, Surrealism Manifesto. 1st ed. Ed. Danchev, A. London: Penguin Group.

Breton, A. (1924). Surrealism Manifesto. Available: http://www.tcf.ua.edu/Classes/Jbutler/T340/SurManifesto/ManifestoOfSurrealism.htm. Last accessed 26th October 2011.

Danchev, A. (2011). 100 Artists’ Manifestos From The Futurists To The Stuckists. 1st ed. London: Penguin Group.

CaveDogStudio. (2011). Manifesto. Available: http://www.cavedogstudio.com/manifesto/index.html. Last accessed 21st October 2011.

Childish, B and Thomson, C. (2011). 100 Artists’ Manifestos From The Futurists To The Stuckists, Stuckist Manifesto. 1st ed. Ed. Danchev, A. London: Penguin Group.

Childish, B and Thomson, C. (1999). Stuckist Manifesto. Available: http://www.stuckism.com/stuckistmanifesto.html#manifest. Last accessed 26th October 2011.

Chochinov, A. (2011). 1.000 Words Manifesto . Available: http://www.manifestoproject.it/allan-chochinov/. Last accessed 21st October 2011.

Choussat, A & Antonio, Z. (2004). Last Things Last. Available: http://www.ablogcuratedby.com/yohjiyamamoto/the-manifesto-by-antonio-choussat/. Last accessed 21st October 2011.

Gropius, W. (2011). 100 Artists’ Manifestos From The Futurists To The Stuckists, Bauhaus Manifesto. 1st ed. Ed. Danchev, A. London: Penguin Group.

Gropius, W. (1919). Bauhaus Manifesto. Available: http://www.mariabuszek.com/kcai/ConstrBau/Readings/GropBau19.pdf. Last accessed 26th October 2011.

Harris, Judith. The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do. 1998. Simon and Schuster, New York.

Hippocratic Corpus. 460-377 B.C.

Ken Garland, K. (1964). First Things First Manifesto. Available: http://www.manifestoproject.it/ken-garland/. Last accessed 21st October 2011.

Marinetti, F. T. (2011). 100 Artists’ Manifestos From The Futurists To The Stuckists, Futurists Manifesto. 1st ed. Ed. Danchev, A. London: Penguin Group.

Marinetti, F. T.. (1909). Futurists Manifesto. Available: http://cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/T4PM/futurist-manifesto.html. Last accessed 26th October 2011.

Mau, B. (1998). Incomplete Manifesto for Growth. Available: http://www.brucemaudesign.com/4817/112450/work/incomplete-manifesto-for-growth. Last accessed 21st October 2011.

Miura. (2011). Miura Manifesto. Available: http://www.miura.gi/ourmanifesto.php. Last accessed 21st October 2011.

Rams, D. (1980). Ten principles for good design. Available: http://www.manifestoproject.it/ten-principles-for-good-design/. Last accessed 21st October 2011.

The Mentor. (1986). The Conscience of a Hacker. Available: http://www.phrack.org/issues.html?issue=7&id=3&mode=txt. Last accessed 21st October 2011.

The Pirate Bay. (2009). Powr.Proccoli-Kopimi. Available: http://www.gubatron.com/blog/2009/02/25/powrproccoli-kopimi-the-pirate-bay-manifesto/. Last accessed 21st October 2011.

Tzara, T. (2011). 100 Artists’ Manifestos From The Futurists To The Stuckists, Dada Manifesto. 1st ed. Ed. Danchev, A. London: Penguin Group.

Tzara, T. (1918). Dada Manifesto. Available: http://www.freemedialibrary.com/index.php/Dada_Manifesto_%281918,_Tristan_Tzara%29. Last accessed 26th October 2011.

Assessment 1 | What to inc 2

Danchev, A. (2011). 100 Artists’ Manifestos From The Futurists To The Stuckists. 1st ed. London: Penguin Group.

What I liked from other manifestos, and what to mention:
From a lot of the earlier manifestos, there is a real self-serving feel towards them. While they for the most, about change and new ideas, a lot of this is lost in the political satire and rigidity of the movements ‘rules’.

I felt the more successful manifestos came towards the start of this century. Such as the First Things First 2000, An Incomplete Manifesto for Growth, Ten principles for good design, and 1.000 Words Manifesto. These four examples also influenced the two less well know manifestos from small design company’s, Miura and CaveDogStudio.

I defiantly want to use this manifesto to get across some of my interest, however I feel that I should stay away from doing this with images and formatting as it would degrade the written assessment given the terms of the brief. (12.pt text, Verdana) So this really only leave me with what I say, and how I say it.

Surrealism
Forward thinking, beyond just what can see, experimenting with different media, taking risks

Bauhaus
The Bauhaus manifesto is very up beat, it is written in the style of a declaration, easy to read and concise. It is very motivational, and gives a real sense of what the movement believe in. Very forward thinking.

Stuckists
It counters everything about the modernism movement, from its education (or lack of) to its egotistical nature of the manifesto. Not keen on ho they dismiss the new for not being “design”.

First Things First & First Things First 2000
It held the belief that designers must be critical in their designs to take a stand against hegemonic (imperial dominance) ideologies. For example they should not stoop to working or promoting those industries or products believed to be controlling and ‘bad’ (Such as cigarette companies). This is definitely something I want to include.

An Incomplete Manifesto for Growth, Miura & CaveDogStudio.
I like how this manifesto articulating his beliefs, strategies, and motivations. It is very inspiring young designers, and has lead to the creation of posters and/or book covers for it. It is very positive in its attitude and gives the reader a sense that the writer is wanting to help them by proving lessons and advice from their own experience.

Like these 3 manifestos I want to not only be positive about design but to also include some element on how to present yourself as well, much like in their manifestos.

Ten principles for good design
“01 Good design is innovative. The possibilities for innovation are not, by any means, exhausted. Technological development is always offering new opportunities for innovative design. But innovative design always develops in tandem with innovative technology, and can never be an end in itself.” Again very forward thinking, promotes innovation, experimentation etc.

1.000 Words Manifesto
Goes beyond talking about just design to comment on other areas such as simple, how to act (Hippocratic Before Socratic). Fits in well with my stance on things.

Last Things Last
‘Thomas Edison said “Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration”. Without the one percent inspiration, all the perspiration in the world is only a bucket of sweat.

Nice quote to end on, and it is fitting with the name.

Assessment 1 | What to inc

So Now What?
For my piece I think I will go for a more traditional story style, with an introduction, middle and end rather then an ordered, or unordered list. I feel and ordered list would wrongly put a sense of importance onto each comment, whereas I would prefer it to be read together, and portray my belief that they are all as important as each other.

Points to Include:
I want to get across my interest, as after all it is my manifesto.

    • gaming

    • design

    • art

    • computers

  • Make a point of not being political.

  • Experimenting

  • Inventive

  • To keep things simple.

  • Unique

  • Down to earth, help people, work with them.

  • Mention manifestos that inspire me

    • Mau

    • Miura

    • Cavedogstudio

I want to come across similar to the manifesto’s of Mau, Miura and Cavedogstudio. Not angry or satirical in nature, but rather as a guide of good practice, beliefs and ways to work. Not necessarily a list, but more of a guide set out in short paragraphs.

My Style:

  • Ordered list

  • Unordered list

  • Poem

  • Pro’s

  • Small paragraphs

I did want to format my manifesto in the style of a magazine I came across while researching layouts, Zembia magazine issue 1, by design studio frost design. However I feel that as an assessment, this is probably not the best way to go as it ma impact on the actual readability of the piece. However I would like to at least use it on the small intro section. Unfortunately it seem like it is going to be quite hard to stick to the 1000 word limit.

Assessment 1 | Analysis of manifestos

Futurists Manifesto:
The manifesto is written in the style of an ordered list. From 1 to 11. It has 11 points as 11 was Marinetti’s favourite number. It is written in a clear, easy to read way and reads somewhat like a piece of propaganda. It is very poetic, conjuring up a real sense of passion and devotion.

However towards the end it seems to move from being inspirational and moving, to being more of a rant. Warmongering and encouraging extreme reactions from its members, as well as far left political views.

“8. We stand on the last promontory of the centuries!… Why should we look back, when what we want is to break down the mysterious doors of the Impossible? Time and Space died yesterday. We already live in the absolute, because we have created eternal, omnipresent speed.” (Marinetti, 1909).

I most strongly agree with this point in the manifesto, as I believe that looking ahead and experimenting is the way to better graphic design. Sadly like most manifestos for ‘artists’, they seem to be self-serving, egotistical and rather preachy.

Dada Manifesto:
The very fact that the Dada have a manifesto is ironic in their beliefs. Their manifesto seem to be a direct attack on the futurists manifesto, it is very much anti-war, its purpose was to ridicule what its participants considered to be the meaninglessness of the modern world.

It is written in a very basic, somewhat satirical and childlike way. Clearly this is a reaction to Marinetti. It contradicts the harsh warlike feel of the Futurists for a more laid back fun poke. As a manifesto I feel it works for the Dada, as a piece of design in itself, however I struggle to agree with most of the comments it makes, for example “Art is a private thing, the artist makes it for himself” (Tzara, 1918). While in some respects this is true, I feel a lot of what art is about is expressing yourself to the world.

Bauhaus Manifesto:
The Bauhaus manifesto proclaimed that the ultimate aim of all creative activity is “the building”. Students participated right from the start in building projects.

The Bauhaus manifesto is very up beat, it is written in the style of a declaration, easy to read and concise. It is very motivational, and gives a real sense of what the movement believe in. I think this works really well as a manifesto and would love to recreate something similar in my work. A key point I liked was “There is no essential difference between the artist and the craftsman. The artist is an exalted craftsman.” (Gropius, 1919). I feel this directly relates to today’s world, simply replace ‘craftsman’ with graphic designer.

Stuckist Manifesto:
This is another manifesto written in the style of an ordered list, it has 20 points ranging in size from about a line to 5.

It was written in response to the criticism of their work from Tracey Emin, “Your paintings are stuck,you are stuck!Stuck! Stuck! Stuck!”.

The stuckist manifesto again takes a satirical, fun poking view of its purpose from the start, much like the Dada.

It counters everything about the modernism movement, from its education (or lack of) to its egotistical, self-serving nature “7. The Stuckist is not mesmerised by the glittering prizes”. (Childish, B & Thomson, C. 1999).

I personally think even with its satirical, mocking overtones, its really works well as a manifesto. It is clear in its intentions and the feel of it reflects that of the Stuckist’s themselves. I would also love to recreate a piece in this style, I think it works really well.

“14. Brit Art, in being sponsored by Saachis, main stream conservatism and the Labour government, makes a mockery of its claim to be subversive or avant-garde.” (Childish, B & Thomson, C. 1999).

I adore this quite, hits the nail right on the head. I would love to write in the style of the Stuckist’s manifesto but I feel that I lack a real nemesis to truly allow me to be satirical and make its an interesting read.

Surrealism Manifesto:
The Surrealist’s manifesto is actually quite long and wordy compared to the manifesto’s of others. It is set out in largely in paragraphs, but does contain a small ordered list. But even these are still quite long and wordy when compared to the general layout of past manifesto’s. But then again that all ads to the feel and desire of surrealism, so dream and be different, away with the old.

Clearly the fact that Breton was a poet played a large part in the style he wrote the manifesto. It is full of adjectives and reads like a poem, while still getting across the points he intended. Breton sought a more constructive way to rebel against rational thought than the more negative Dada.

Again I am a huge fan of the working that came out of the surrealist movement, but for me, even tough they are less ‘preachy’ and negative then the Dada, it still feels as if it was trying to be an exclusive club just to be ‘cool’ and make people listen to them for the wrong reasons, which contradicts what I see as the ideals of surrealism. (Breton, 1924).

Ten principles for good design – Dieter Rams:
This is a simple 10 point ordered list version of a manifesto. I like the style of ordered list manifesto’s, they tend to be to the point and less ‘preachy’. Rams give lots of valid observations in his manifesto. “01 Good design is innovative. The possibilities for innovation are not, by any means, exhausted. Technological development is always offering new opportunities for innovative design. But innovative design always develops in tandem with innovative technology, and can never be an end in itself.”

Again this is a well written manifesto with clear principles and observations. They style works very well and can easily be used as a check-list for good design. There is a clear influence from the modernist, in particular the Bauhaus movement. Rams has even influenced Jonathan Ive, of Apple Inc. Rams even states that Apple is one of the few companies designing products according to his principles. So he is clearly a very good designer to aspire to.

1.000 Words Manifesto – Allan Chochinov:
Is very similar to that of Rams, it uses a similar layout with 10 points. It is a mix of observation, principles and goals for designers. He borrows from other well know sources such as the Owner’s Manifesto. He even goes beyond just design to comment on other areas such as simple, how to act (Hippocratic Before Socratic). Something which I feel was missing from Rams manifesto.

Another example of an ordered list style manifesto is that of The Pirate Bay website. (Powr.Proccoli-Kopimi, 2009). It is stated as ‘100 roads to #g-d’ but actually contains 109 points. Again this is a nod to the political satire nature of past manifesto’s, such as the Stuckist’s and Dada. As we know The Pirate Bay had become quite famous recently for its use of modern technology to spread its ideals, mainly that of file sharing, and anti corporate greed. The feel of their manifesto compliments the website well, with its tongue in cheek response to government interference. While practically it is not the best manifesto, it does work well for them, and works well as a manifesto for its members.

The First Things First Manifesto (1964) called for a revolutionary form of graphic design. It criticised value free design and had wide influence on the resulting development of the new generation of graphic designers.

The re-introduction of the First Things First Manifesto in 2000, reintroduced the same idea. It held the belief that designers must be critical in their designs to take a stand against hegemonic (imperial dominance) ideologies. For example they should not stoop to working or promoting those industries or products believed to be controlling and ‘bad’ (Such as cigarette companies). It also alludes to the fact that designers should not lower themselves to doing menial, ‘inessential’ work such as using their skills to sell dog biscuits.

Again these two manifesto’s come across as ‘wordy’ but not to the same extent as the Surrealists. I feel this manifesto is much more relevant to me as it is more modern and deals with graphic design as opposed to ‘traditional art’.

It comes across as a ‘call to arms’ and achieves its goals very well, as evidenced by the reintroduction of the manifesto in 2000.

I strongly agree with this manifesto, especially the updated version in 2000, however some of the backlash to the re-release did occur, mainly in 2 ways:

      1. It was seen by some as ‘elitist nonsense’.
      2. It was seen by some as being ‘absolutist’.

These are two valid concerns with the manifesto, as it seems to have regressed back towards Marinetti’s way of thinking. All things considered though, I feel that this is a very strong manifesto for a designer to at least take not of. If you were to take not of the First Things First & Rams’ manifesto, I feel that you would be in a very strong position as a future designer.

Again as with most popular manifesto’s some alternate versions were born from it, mainly the Last Things Last manifesto, (Choussat, A & Antonio, Z. 2004). “Designers are self-centered, but at least they know it.”

The last ‘mainstream’ manifesto that interested me wasAn Incomplete Manifesto for Growth (Mau, 1998). It is in the same style as the Stuckist’s, a 43 point manifesto articulating his beliefs, strategies, and motivations. It is very inspiring young designers, and has lead to the creation of posters and/or book covers for it.

For a young designer such as myself, this list is extremely helpful, and gives a great insight into what I should expect and how I should go about my business. Everything from life, work and play. It is a welcome change from the overly idealistic manifesto’s of other designers and I believe it a must read for everyone, not just budding designers. I would argue that this is probably the most inspiring piece if have come across.

Similar to that of Mau, I came across the manifesto’s of two small design companies that I felt where along the same lines of Mau. Clearly his influence is far reaching, but as I have said, that is a good thing.

Miura Manifesto: (Miura. (2011). Miura Manifesto. Available: http://www.miura.gi/ourmanifesto.php. Last accessed 21st October 2011).

The manifesto contains 16 simple points articulating their strategies, and beliefs. It uses simple heading much like in the work of Mau. It is great for young graphic designers in much the same way, giving advice on not only how to work, but how to live. “TO BE HONEST”, “TO DESIGN WORK WE ARE PROUD OF” etc. It works very well despite its short and simple nature, in fact I think this adds to the overall effect of it.

CaveDogStudio Manifesto: (CaveDogStudio. (2011). Manifesto. Available: http://www.cavedogstudio.com/manifesto/index.html. Last accessed 21st October 2011).

The manifesto work in much the same way as Miura’s, it is written as an unordered list with 7 points. Again it is much more like a guide to being a good graphic designer then a political movement, just like how I would like mine to be. The list is extremely inspiring, and gives a great insight into their beliefs, strategies, and motivations.

“Keep it simple”, “ Be inventive”. I do not think you could get much closer to the mark then these two quotes lifted from the manifesto.

Assignment 1 | Aspirations…

Background

This is a scan of a brainstorm i have done. I was trying to get down all the things in my background that i feel has given me shape as a person. As you know i come from a background in Law, i was there for many years, so naturally it is a large part of my life. Before i went into law i had always been interested in graphic design, however after GCSE there was no real option availible to me to continue on this path. Even while i was studying law i quickly found my interest in producing media on my computer outgrowing that of my studies.

Online RPG’s or MMORPG’s are also a large part of my background, infact prolly over half of my life has involved me playing computer games with friends in some respect, wether online, or gathered around my TV with 4 friends playing Mario Kart. So it would be foolish of me not to consider these aspects. Drawing great inspiration from the games and the art, to working with friends to progress, allowing for truly unique ideas to form with various perspectives and inputs. I have always been interest in computers, everything from building them, gaming,  programming even designing and making my own cases.

Aspirations

This is a scan of a brainstorm i have done. I was trying to get down all the thingst that i would like to aspire to do. Clearly i am still very influenced in all types of media, but my number one aspiration would have to be to find a job i truely love. wether its working with games, or designing products or animations. I want to be number one, truely push myself and be happy with myself. Everyone has dreams like working for Blizzard etc, but i think that by really working hard and pushing myself into different things i can get there. But no man is an island and teams like those at Blizzard work in highly qualified groups. Therefor it should be an important area of my manifesto to promote teamwork for the conception and application of ideas. No man is an island.

Field of study

This is a scan of a brainstorm i have done. I was trying to get down all the potential fields of study. I considered everything from consultant, to copyright. However being a creative person i feel i would be wasted not applying my talents in design directly. Infact i would probaly not enjoy, not working directly with the materials. Whether its motion, game, marketing, web or academic much of my manifesto would still apply. Even though the fields are vastly different, then key points are the same. Work hard, be creative, have good ideas, apply them very well and enjoy what you do.

Inspirations

This is a scan of a brainstorm i have done. I was trying to get down all the different sources of inspiration. Inspiration can come from anywhere, books, tv, music, games, even conversations. Friends and family are just as important as inspiration as books and film. Often their unique and different approach to things helps you conceptualise in different ways and see things differently. On the brain storm i have even listed a few of my main inspirations for my style, David Firth and Jhonen Vasquez. I have been a huge fan of their work for a long time and have even met them on occasion. Meeting them was probaly the main reason i wanted to get back into graphic design. Their words of encouragement ment alot to me.

A large area of inspiration i feel is taking a piece of work you really like and deconstucting it. After which you attempt to put it back together in the same way. Try to get as close as you can. This is imitation, but it gives you a real feel for the techniqes used, it is truly remarkable how discredited, and underused imitation is as a learning tool & technique. It is from this that you develop YOUR style as a designer and create unique pieces of work, which if you are any good will inturn be copied.

Key areas i want to mention
This is a list of key areas i feel that i want to mention in my manifesto

My inspiration
Movements i ally with
Trying new things
KISS theory of methodologies
Carry on thinking, know you can do more
Imitation
Help others
colaborate, composition, not as a collective
Be unique
find your own style
Stop Making Crap
First do no harm”
The gap
Bruce Mau’s Incomplete Manifesto for Growth

PS always carry a notepad.

Assignment 1 | TheØries

Discuss the theories within the texts, analyse the key concepts and present your ideas in an academic form.

Brief History of Manifestos
Due to the internet there has been a resurgence of the form, and many new manifestos are now appearing to a potential worldwide audience. In particular the Stuckists.

The Futurist manifesto was the first art manifesto of the 20th Century. It appeared on 20th February 1909, paving the way for Surrealists, Dada-ists, and Bauhaus, as well as more recent Stuckists.

Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. A millionaire Italian poet with a passion for fast cars, created the artistic movement out of nothing, and then went about recruiting Futurist artists. It was basically an early exercise in cultural branding.

Marinetti set the template for the manifesto – shock tactics, declamation, bullet points, such as: “A racing car is more beautiful than the Victory of Samothace”, “Poetry must be a violent assault…” and “We glorify War…”

It had 11 bullet points because 11 was his favourite number. Marinetti was a self-publicist, he wanted to update Italian culture, The manifesto was about publicity, he published to become famous. And they became famous.

Soon everyone wanted a manifesto, to shout their claim to be new, to be best. 1916 the Dada manifesto was recited by Hugo Ball at a cabaret in Zurich, and then rewritten in 1918 by Tristan Tzara who summed up manifesto writing concisely: “To put out a manifesto you must want A B C and fulminate against 1 2 3.”

Come 1924 Andre Breton’s two Surrealist Manifestos that defines the purposes of the group. He included citations of the influences on Surrealism, examples of Surrealist works and discussion of Surrealist automatism. He defined Surrealism as:

“Pure psychic automatism, by which one proposes to express, either verbally, in writing, or by any other manner, the real functioning of thought. Dictation of thought in the absence of all control exercised by reason, outside of all aesthetic and moral preoccupation.”

Dalí (possibly my favorite surrealist)and Magritte created the most widely recognized images of the movement. Pablo Picasso was also influenced by his contact with the surrealists.

In 1999, Billy Childish and Charles Thomson unleashed the Stuckist Manifesto, it came about as a way to protest against what they saw as the dominance of conceptual art and the Young British Artists, at the expense of figurative painting.

The name came about after Tracey Emin’s reported criticism that their figurative work was “Stuck! Stuck! Stuck!”

It’s a 20-point manifesto, “against conceptualism, hedonism and the cult of the ego artist.” “Art that has to be a gallery to be art, isn’t art,” it proclaimed. “Stuckism is anti-ism.”

  • Modernism
    Modernism was a revolt against the conservative values of realism. It was brought on by modernity, around the turn of century by rapidly changing technology and catalyzed by the events of World War I. In general, the term modernism is given to those who felt the “traditional” forms of art were becoming outdated in the new social, and industrialized world.I feel that the turn of the century, and the events at that time perfectly aligned to produce this new way of thinking. While i do appreciate “traditional” art, i do feel that it has had its time. It is time to expertiment and try new things. With current technology almost anyone can use a computer to create ‘something’. But then i do feel a strong draw to the words of the Last Things Lastmanifesto (Choussat, A & Antonio, Z. (2004). Last Things Last 2004 a manifesto. Available: http://www.ablogcuratedby.com/yohjiyamamoto/the-manifesto-by-antonio-choussat/. Last accessed 22nd October 2011)Noted Modernist include

    • Picaso
    • Dalí
    • Virginia wolf
  • Avent-garde
    The term applied to any group, particularly of artists, that considers itself innovative and ahead of the majority. Avant-garde represents a pushing of the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm or the status quo, primarily in the cultural realm.Surrealism gained the fame among the public of being the most extreme form of modernism, or “the avant-garde of modernism”.

    • Mallarme (1897)
  • Futurists
    emphasized and glorified themes associated with contemporary concepts of the future, including speed, technology, youth and violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane and the industrial city.They love to shock people, and this came across in Marinetti’s Manifesto of Futurism. It was basically an early exercise in cultural branding, cheap tactics to get them noticed.While i do like some of the ideas of the futurists, they take it too far as seen in thier fascination with totalitarian regimes. Those movements, represented here by their leaders, are: Italian Futurism and fascism, represented by Marinetti; Russian Cubo-Futurism and bolshevism, represented by Mayakovsky; and English Vorticism and its glorification of Hitler, represented by Wyndham Lewis.
  • Dada
    was on the flip side of Futurism, the movement primarily involved visual arts, such as poetry, theatre, and graphic design. The movement concentrated its anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. Its purpose was to ridicule what its participants considered to be the meaninglessness of the modern world.While i agree on their idea about not glorifiying war and fascism, i feel that the Dada went too far, and tried to stifle the emerging new ideas from the turn of the century. I am a firm believer in the evolution of art and design.
  • De Stijl
    Is a Dutch artistic movement founded in 1917. In general, De Stijl proposed ultimate simplicity and abstraction, both in architecture and painting, by using only straight horizontal and vertical lines and rectangular forms. Furthermore, their formal vocabulary was limited to the primary colours, red, yellow, and blue, and the three primary values, black, white, and grey.
  • Russian constructivism
    Constructivism was an artistic philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1919, which was a rejection of the idea of autonomous art in favour of art as a practice for social purposes. Constructivism had a great effect on modern art movements of the 20th century, influencing major trends such as Bauhaus and the De Stijlmovement. Its influence was pervasive, with major impacts upon architecture, graphic and industrial design, theatre, film, dance, fashion and to some extent music.While i am a big fan of the style of Constructivism graphic design, i do reject its philosophys. I feel that as pieces of graphic design they really speak to me. I love the feel of the propaganda posters, and use of simple print colours.
  • Bauhaus
    The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar. One of the main objectives of the Bauhaus was to unify art, craft, and technology. The Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design. The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography.The machine was considered a positive element, and therefore industrial and product design were important components. There was no teaching of history in the school because everything was supposed to be designed and created according to first principles rather than by following precedent.I feel a strong affinity towards the Bauhaus movement, i like how htye embrace new technology, clean lines etc, similar to De Stijl. However their focus on mass production i feel flys in the face of real design. Obviously allowing anyone to own something they like is great, i feel that alot of what makes graphic design special is lost to the machines. (ironic for a photoshop user?) Also their belief that design should come from first principles rather than following precedent is something i feel strongly with, again i am much an advocate of experimenting and learning new things.

    • Jan tschichold
      Tschichold had converted to Modernist design principles in 1923 after visiting the first Weimar Bauhaus exhibition. He became a leading advocate of Modernist design.
    • Vasily Kandinsky
      Kandinsky was a great believer in form and colour analysis. Geometrical elements took on increasing importance in both his work particularly the circle, half-circle, the angle, straight lines and curves withe the use of rich colours and gradations—as in Yellow – red – blue.
  • Surrealism
    Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I in the early 1920s, and is best known for its distinct visual artworks. It was a reaction to Dadaism, which was itself a reaction to the “logic” that dadaists believed had caused the war. Surrealism, however, sought a more constructive way to rebel against rational thought than the more negative Dadaism. Their leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement.Surrealism exposed psychological truth by stripping ordinary objects of their normal significance to create a compelling image that was beyond ordinary formal organization, in order to evoke empathy from the viewer.

    The characteristics of this style—a combination of the depictive, the abstract, and the psychological—came to stand for the alienation which many people felt in the modern period, combined with the sense of reaching more deeply into the psyche, to be “made whole with one’s individuality”.

    If i had to choose a movement, i would likely choose the surrealists, i adore their work, i find it inspiring, deep and moving. The visual style gives its designs a much stronger and deeper meaning. It goes beyond what your merly see, it is a creative act of revolt and aims to liberate imagination. It is interesting and fun to look at, it is inherently dynamic.

    It promotes experimentation, using different media, not just thinking outside of the box, but building a whole freaking new box.

    However as artists of this type are always somewhat self-centered and self-serving, it has the unfortunate undertones of political revolt. Why i think being politcally motivated is not a bad thing, i do feel that these types of intrusions only serve to exclude and limit a movement on political grounds. I do not feel this level of political activism is needed in a ‘free thinking, design world’

    Cant we all just design together? without all the preaching?